Abbreviations were even more conservatively used, only the oldest conventional forms being admitted, and often only a very few and those only at line ends.
By the end of the 8th century bce, the use of the Aramaic language and alphabet had become very widespread in Assyria itself; by the end of the following century all of Syria and a large part of Mesopotamia had become thoroughly Aramaized.
Others hold that the alphabet follows the flag; that is, that the diffusion of an alphabet results from political and military conquests by the people who use it.
However, by the time it was inherited by the Canaanitesit was purely alphabetic, standing only for b see Phoenician alphabet. Between and bce, alphabetic signs found in scattered sites showed a correspondence of form and provided material for sound translations. In Western culture the plainer Greek- and Latin-derived alphabets and the spread of literacy have tended to make handwriting in principle an art that anyone can practice.
Here are found all the characteristics of the earliest minuscule, which is called pure minuscule because there is as yet no admixture of uncial forms, except occasionally at line ends. In the latter case there is this peculiarity, that plaster siclime or gypsum was used along with stone, a combination of materials which is illustrated by comparison of the practice of the Egyptian engravers, who, having first carefully smoothed the stone, filled up the faulty places with gypsum or cement, in order to obtain a perfectly uniform surface on which to execute their engravings.
Indeed, it is probable that those who invented the alphabet were acquainted with most of the scripts current in the eastern Mediterranean lands at the time. However, these glyphs are not necessarily considered independent letters of the alphabet, depending on the language.
The difficulty of the paleographer lies in the essential homogeneity of the material, which is largely the result of the conditions in which the manuscripts were produced. There was a considerable lapse of time before the history of Greek writing resumed at Byzantium.
Nevertheless the remarkable fact is that cyrillic remains the script of all the Slav regions which adopt the Greek Orthodox faith - including Serbia, Bulgaria and above all Russia.
By being adopted and then adapted by the Greeks, the North Semitic, or Phoenician, alphabet became the direct ancestor of all Western alphabets. With the advent of the Christian Era, the custom of folding sheets of papyrus or vellum down the middle and stitching the gatherings of two or four sheets along this fold into a cover gave rise to a book of modern form—the codex a word that originally referred to a set of wax tablets coupled with a leather thong.
Even more extreme, the Pahlavi abjad became logographic. The exile suffered by the Israelites — bce dealt a heavy blow to the Hebrew languagesince, after their return from exile, Aramaic was the dominant language of the area, and Hebrew existed as a second and scholarly language.
Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs: The sounds of speech of all languages of the world can be written by a rather small universal phonetic alphabet. Through Islam and the spread of Arabic, it becomes one of the world's standard scripts. That they manifest closely related efforts is certain; what the exact relationship among these efforts was, and what their relationship with the North Semitic alphabet was, cannot be said with certainty.
The pen-written forms of the Old Hebrew alphabet are best preserved in the 13th-century-ce documents of the Samaritan sects. Broadly considered, three styles can be distinguished during this period.
Thus, although handwritten books could not be reproduced in quantity or with complete uniformity, they did survive the introduction of printing. Over the centuries, various theories have been advanced to explain the origin of alphabetic writing, and, since Classical times, the problem has been a matter of serious study.
For its part the Greek alphabet introduced for the first time explicit symbols for vowel sounds. It is not, however, entirely so attributable, for a tendency to enlarge some letters out of proportion to the size of the rest is seen in a small way in some of the more personal hands of the earliest period.
The transplantation of masses of Aramaeans by the Assyrians, a political measure designed to break up military alliances, bore remarkable fruit.Alphabet: Alphabet, set of graphs, or characters, used to represent the phonemic structure of a language.
In most alphabets the characters are arranged in a definite order, or sequence, and each alphabetic character represents either a consonant or a vowel rather than a syllable or a group of consonants and vowels.
Phonetics and the alphabet: from the 15th century BC: The most significant development in the history of writing, since the first development of a script in about BC, is the move from a pictographic or syllabic system (characteristic of Sumerian, ancient Egyptian and Chinese) to a phonetic one, based on recording the spoken sound of a word.
An alphabet is a writing system, a list of symbols for writing. The basic symbols in an alphabet are called letters. In an alphabet, each letter is. Calligraphy: Calligraphy, the art of beautiful handwriting. The term may derive from the Greek words for “beauty” (kallos) and “to write” (graphein).
It implies a sure knowledge of the correct form of letters—i.e., the conventional signs by which language can be communicated—and the skill to make them with such. From the simple representative shapes used to record transactions of goods and services in ancient Mesopotamia, to the sophisticated typographical resources available to the twenty-first-century users of desktop computers, the story of writing is the story of human civilization itself.
INTRODUCTION: Pre-Alphabetic Writing • Chinese writing is based on ideograms – hard to learn at first, so it takes Chinese •related to Hebrew/Arabic – included gutturals. The History of the Alphabet more important than either of these is the invention of writing itself John Healey, The Early Alphabet, The History of.Download