Poor harvests lasting several years and an inadequate transportation system both contributed to making food more expensive. This was a signal that the Bourbon monarchy was in a weakened state and subject to the demands of its people.
They were among the most important people in French society but were not recognized as such because they belonged to the third estate. In the Convention, they were known as the mountain because they sat on the high benches at the rear of the hall during meetings.
Bonaparte seized control of the government on November 9,ending the revolution. Originally largely apolitical, Freemasonry was radicalised in the late 18th century through the introduction of higher grades, which emphasised themes of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
The feudal regime had been weakened step-by-step and had already disappeared in parts of Europe. The National Convention opened on September 21,and declared France a republic.
They began to go into prisons and kill people they thought were traitors to France. The States-General was made up of representatives of the three estates, and had last met in Coup of 18 Brumaire[ change change source ] Napoleon Bonaparte People rioted against the Directory, but the Directory used the army to stop them.
The third estate resented certain advantages of the first two estates. Tennis Court Oath By the time the Estates-General convened at Versailles, the highly public debate over its voting process had erupted into hostility between the three orders, eclipsing the original purpose of the meeting and the authority of the man who had convened it.
Massive peasant uprisings were also occurring in the countryside. In one of the early events, a crowd in Paris captured the Bastille, a royal fortress and hated symbol of oppression.
Arguments for social reform began to be advanced. Nearly a third were in trades or industry; 51 were wealthy land owners. Many of the killings were carried out under orders from Robespierre, who dominated the draconian Committee of Public Safety until his own execution on July 28, Even powerful people who had been involved in the Jacobin coup were executed.
The National Convention found him guilty of treasonand a slim majority voted for the death-penalty. Many assumed the Estates-General would approve future taxes, and Enlightenment ideals were relatively rare. They also disliked being forced to join the French army.
They made the army bigger and changed the officers to people who were better soldiers. Even though the Third Estate had many more members than the other two Estates, each Estate only had one vote in the Estates-General. No single group was controlling Paris or France.
This compromise did not sit well with influential radicals like Maximilien de RobespierreCamille Desmoulins and Georges Danton, who began drumming up popular support for a more republican form of government and for the trial of Louis XVI.
Many of the killings were carried out under orders from Robespierre, who dominated the draconian Committee of Public Safety until his own execution on July 28, The Legislative Assembly did not agree very well. French music, the partisans of both sides appealed to the French public "because it alone has the right to decide whether a work will be preserved for posterity or will be used by grocers as wrapping-paper".
Teachers also need to have knowledge of the French Revolution. This group was in charge and was called the Directory. This first stage of the French Revolutionary Wars continued until The Third Estate demanded that the credentials of deputies should be verified by all deputies, rather than each estate verifying the credentials of its own members, but negotiations with the other estates failed to achieve this.
Meanwhile, the royal court at Versailles was isolated from and indifferent to the escalating crisis. They promised that they would invade France if their requests were ignored. The king was beheaded on the guillotine on January 21, Within a week, most of the clerical deputies and 47 liberal nobles had joined them, and on June 27 Louis XVI grudgingly absorbed all three orders into the new assembly.
He also had the power to choose ministers. It is possible that up to 40, people died in prison or were killed during the Reign of Terror. The Directory [ change change source ] The new constitution had created the Directoire Directorywhich was the first government of France to be bicameral split into two houses.
A popular insurgency culminated on July 14 when rioters stormed the Bastille fortress in an attempt to secure gunpowder and weapons; many consider this event, now commemorated in France as a national holiday, as the start of the French Revolution.
For France, which with 26 million inhabitants in was the most populated country of Europe, the problem was most acute.The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte, a French general, took over the government. At the beginning of the revolution, events seemed minor and proceeded in a logical fashion.
One of the reasons the revolution originated was the discontent among the lower and middle classes in France. Nov 09, · Watch video · The French Revolution was a watershed event in modern European history that began in and ended in the late s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The French Revolution was a period of significant social and political changes in French history which had major impact on the political, social and cultural developments not /5(7).
The French Revolution (French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from until The French Revolution challenged political, social and cultural norms in European society.
Politically, the governmental structure of the Revolution moved from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy to a republic and finally to an oligarchy.Download